Welcome to the City of Seattle's Office of City Auditor web site. The City Auditor is Seattle's independent auditor, appointed by the City Council to a four-year term of office.
The Office of City Auditor conducts performance audits of City of Seattle programs, departments, grantees, and contracts. It also conducts non-audit studies to provide City of Seattle decision makers with timely information.
Feel free to call our office at (206) 233-3801 if you have any questions about our functions or procedures.
June 8, 2016
Focus: When the Seattle City Council approved the reauthorization of the Metropolitan Improvement District (MID) and its expansion into Belltown in May 2013, they included a performance audit requirement in the authorizing legislation, Ordinance 124175. As specified in this ordinance, the audit's primary purpose was to assess whether, three years after implementation, Belltown has received the general types and levels of services described in the MID Business Plan.
Results: We concluded that the Belltown is receiving the general types and levels of services described in the MID's April 18, 2013 Business Plan, including the services outlined in the Belltown Program Implementation Plan that is part of the MID Business Plan.
June 2, 2016
Focus: To report on the implementation status as of December 2015 of 453 recommendations from audit reports issued by our office from January 2007 - December 2015.
Results: As of December 31, 2015, 75 percent (337 out of 453) were implemented, 13 percent (60.5 out of 453) were pending, and 12 percent (55.5 out of 453) were categorized as no further follow up planned.
April 28, 2016
This research brief addresses one component of a comprehensive public health approach to addressing drug abuse -- the safe disposal of unused prescription drugs. Safe disposal of unused prescription drugs, especially opioid pain relievers, reduces the risk of nonmedical use that might lead to drug abuse, including heroin addiction.
On April 4, 2016, the Seattle City Council unanimously passed Resolution 31654 expressing the City's support for an effective, countywide safe prescription drug disposal program, including controlled substances, and requesting local pharmacies and the Seattle Police Department to install drug disposal drop-boxes across the city: http://seattle.legistar.com/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2598093&GUID=9551D2DD-0DDA-46AF-A2CF-7617D347C467
April 18, 2016
This document is the first in an anticipated series of reports regarding "The Seattle Minimum Wage Study" (SMWS). The Seattle City Council commissioned the study as part of Council Resolution #31524, adopted by unanimous vote on June 2, 2014. The resolution called for the City of Seattle to contract with a group of academic researchers to conduct a rigorous and comprehensive evaluation of the City's minimum wage ordinance, passed by the Council that day. In December 2014, the City executed a contract with the University of Washington (UW) to conduct this evaluation. Seven UW faculty, in collaboration with two economists from the State of Washington's Employment Security Department, comprise the SMWS investigator team. This report summarizes the findings from the baseline data collection from employers, workers, and area prices. The findings reported here are descriptive and do not examine the short- or long-run impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on businesses, workers, or the local economy.
April 11, 2016
Seattle Police Department Overtime Controls Audit
Focus: Seattle Police Chief Kathleen O'Toole asked us to conduct an audit of the Seattle Police Department's (SPD) overtime controls. Specifically, we were asked to review whether there was adequate leadership, management oversight, and supervisory control to manage SPD's overtime spending. Over the past ten years SPD's overtime expenditures have almost doubled and have significantly exceeded SPD's overtime budget. In 2015, SPD spent $24.2 million on overtime. SPD's overtime expenditure trend has caused concerns for the City Council and the City Budget Office, as well as for SPD management.
Results: We identified significant gaps in SPD's overtime internal controls that led to overtime errors and inefficiencies, including duplicate payments of overtime. We found overtime control weaknesses in six major categories: policies and procedures, budgeting, operational controls, management controls, special events, and off-duty work. We offer thirty recommendations to address these weaknesses. SPD agreed with all of our findings and recommendations.
April 1, 2016
December 10, 2015
Focus: Seattle City Councilmember Jean Godden asked us to review the Department of Parks and Recreation's (Parks) oversight of its lease and concession agreements. Specifically, we were asked to review whether Parks is collecting the money and public benefits they are supposed to receive under current contracts, and has proper control for the handling of lease and concession revenues.
Results: We found that all rental payments in our sample were deposited with the City and recorded in the City's accounting system. However, we also identified gaps in internal controls in two major areas: cash handling and contract monitoring. We offer seven recommendations to address these gaps. Additionally, we raise two issues for Parks' consideration related to: 1) tracking revenues and costs and 2) updating its concession contracts and use permits policies and procedures.
October 14, 2015
Focus: The Seattle City Council requested that we evaluate the Seattle Youth Violence Prevention Initiative's Street Outreach component.
Results: Street Outreach has the potential to be a valuable component of a comprehensive violence reduction strategy for Seattle. However, research indicates that Street Outreach can be ineffective and may even cause harm when it is not deployed strategically and when it lacks certain key considerations. We offer six recommendations to the City for strengthening its approach to Street Outreach.
October 14, 2015
Focus: In 2013, the Seattle City Council asked our office to develop an overall evaluation plan for the Seattle Youth Violence Prevention Initiative (SYVPI) and to evaluate two of its components.
Results: This paper briefly summarizes two key conclusions from the four reports on SYVPI that we have published since 2013:
1. Changing adult-run systems can yield positive results for youth, and
2. Support from City leaders can help ensure that SYVPI-related efforts are focused and effective.
October 14, 2015
Focus: The Seattle City Council requested that we evaluate the School Emphasis Officers component of the Seattle Youth Violence Prevention Initiative.
Results: School Emphasis Officers from the Seattle Police Department have the potential to build trust among school students, which could help to change perceptions of the police in school and the wider community. However the program is challenged by lack of clarity in structure and relationship with the Seattle Youth Violence Prevention Initiative, and it would benefit from specific goals and outcome measures. The report offers recommendations in three areas.
September 23, 2015
Focus: The purpose of the consultant review was to determine whether MERS contributed to residential foreclosures by reviewing a random sample of mortgage-related records associated with MERS from the five zip codes in Seattle with the highest foreclosure rates in early 2013.
Results: As a result of the way in which King County indexes its records and the methodology used by the consultant to select their sample, the consultant examined a sample of records that was not representative of MERS-related assignments in Seattle and included only one foreclosure. Consequently, it was not possible for the consultant to determine whether MERS-related assignments led to foreclosures. However, as a result of the consultant's work, we now have a better understanding of the issues that would need to be addressed to answer this question. Any future reviews would need the involvement of King County, as Seattle mortgage assignment documents are filed with the King County Recorder's Office.
June 30, 2015
Focus: To report on the implementation status as of December 2014 of 414 recommendations from audit reports issued by our office from January 2007 through December 2014.
Results: As of December 31, 2014, 72 percent (297 out of 414) were implemented, 15 percent (61.5 out of 414) were pending, and 13 percent (55.5 out of 414) were categorized as no further follow-up planned.
June 16, 2015
At the request of the City Council Budget Committee, the Office of City Auditor selected MEF Associates to conduct an evaluation of Career Bridge, a program designed to assist low-income men of color with multiple barriers to employment by providing them with educational and social services.
MEF Associates concluded that the Career Bridge program represents a creative approach for combining public funds with community-based activism to increase the opportunities for low-income men of color facing barriers to employment, including formerly incarcerated individuals. The report identifies several challenges that, if addressed, could improve the program. The report concludes that Career Bridge has demonstrated strong employment outcomes and has the potential to benefit the individuals enrolled in the program as well as the communities they come home to.
April 1, 2015
March 18, 2015
This audit examined the Seattle Police Department's processes and systems for handling public records requests. We evaluated whether current processes and systems include sufficient controls and oversight to: (1) ensure responses to requests are accurate, consistent, and timely; (2) provide reasonable assurance of compliance with legal requirements; and (3) and promote transparency and public trust.
The Seattle Police Department (SPD) received almost 4,700 requests for public records in 2014. SPD is challenged to respond to these requests in an accurate and timely manner because of an increased volume of requests, complex legal environment, and changes in technology. We found significant gaps in the resources and systems that SPD uses to process public records requests, and these gaps hinder SPD's ability to ensure accurate and timely responses, provide reasonable assurance of compliance with state law, and promote transparency and public trust. We make 13 recommendations in our report. Our first two recommendations address critical gaps in SPD's Public Disclosure Unit resources and systems and will provide immediate improvements to the Unit's efficiency and accountability. The audit's 11 additional recommendations will improve the Unit's access to records, reduce inefficiencies and the risk of errors, improve oversight and staffing of the Unit, and improve the Unit's communications with the public. Please note that the Seattle Police Department's final, written response to the report is included in Appendix F of the report.
December 22, 2014
This audit was conducted in response to concerns expressed by the City Council and the City Budget Office in early 2013 about the Seattle Department of Transportation's (SDOT) large cumulative unspent bond proceeds from bond issuances dating back to 2008 (e.g., $113.8 million unspent by the end of 2011). The City Council was also interested in whether SDOT's unspent bond balances could be readily shifted to fund transportation projects to help reduce the City's transportation maintenance backlog.
SDOT's unexpectedly large bond balances resulted from several factors including the timing of the City's borrowing, delays in spending of bond proceeds because SDOT's project schedules were dependent on partner agencies completing work before SDOT could proceed, lower bids on projects due to the economic recession, and several City Council actions that increased SDOT's bond proceeds to fund Bridging the Gap transportation projects. The latter included re-purposing bond funds from non-SDOT projects to SDOT projects.
If some of the borrowing had been deferred, bond balances would have been smaller, but this would have merely shifted some of the City's annual borrowing and debt service out into the future. In doing so, the City would have taken the risk that bond rates would increase, even though bond rates during that period ultimately declined and then remained low much longer than anticipated. Interest earned on unspent bond proceeds partially offset annual debt service.
Although SDOT's unspent bond proceeds could be shifted to other eligible projects, this process can be lengthy.
Better communication between SDOT, the Department of Finance and Administrative Services, the City Budget Office, and the City Council to clarify why SDOT was not able to spend its bond proceeds as quickly as planned could have diffused the concerns. Clarifying roles and formalizing and improving the City's policies and procedures for bond planning and spending of bond proceeds would contribute to improved communications between the entries involved in the City's bond process.
November 10, 2014
This interactive web tool describes the current research on what is effective in policing, provides a baseline measure (as of March 2014) for how the Seattle Police Department (SPD) is incorporating this research in its practices, and includes brief descriptions of SPD's work in each of the research areas. This web tool was developed through a collaboration of the Office of City Auditor with SPD and researchers from George Mason University and Arizona State University.
We hope this web tool will be useful to SPD, its stakeholders, and other governmental agencies in thinking about how best to incorporate findings from rigorous research into public safety practices.
October 24, 2014
Focus: At the request of the Seattle City Council, our office contracted with the evaluation firm, MEF Associates, to conduct an evaluability assessment of the Seattle Youth Violence Prevention Initiative (SYVPI) to determine whether it is ready for an evaluation of its effectiveness.
Results: The report from MEF identified some strengths of SYVPI but concluded that due to a number of issues with the design and implementation of SYVPI, a rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of SYVPI from 2009 through present is not possible. The report outlines a series of steps that SYVPI could take to get ready for an evaluation at some point in the future. In addition, our office has outlined in an attached memo five specific things that the Executive and City Council could do to support a future evaluation of SYVPI:
- Ensure that SYVPI has clear goals,
- Support a youth violence needs assessment,
- Monitor progress of the SYVPI risk assessment tool,
- Ensure that SYVPI has an adequate data system, and
- Require SYVPI management to report regularly to the Executive and City Council on its evaluation readiness.
The Executive’s attached response to the MEF report indicates that SYVPI plans to address the evaluation planning steps outlined by MEF. However, SYVPI cannot be expected to ready itself for a rigorous evaluation without significant support from the Executive and City Council.
October 17, 2014
Focus: This audit was conducted in response to the Paid Sick and Safe Leave Ordinance (123698), which called for our office to audit the Seattle Office for Civil Rights’ (SOCR) enforcement of the Ordinance.
Results: During the first 16 months of the enforcement of the Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, SOCR primarily used a non-adversarial advisory letter process to enforce the Ordinance, which focused on businesses achieving compliance rather than SOCR conducting formal investigations or imposing sanctions. Although the process may have corrected businesses’ future practices, it did not always hold them accountable for past practices. We identified issues with the advisory letter process and question its extensive use as a long term enforcement strategy.
June 6, 2014
Focus: The Seattle City Council requested this audit because of an alleged employee theft of over $1 million of customer payments from a secondary revenue stream at Seattle Public Utilities. The City Council wanted to ensure that appropriate controls were also in place over the secondary revenue streams at Seattle City Light (SCL), because these types of revenues have generally received less attention and scrutiny than the two utilities' primary revenue streams. Through a risk assessment process, we determined that SCL's Salvage Unit should be chosen as a secondary revenue stream for audit. We hired the firm Francis and Company to perform most of the audit work, with our office performing additional work. The audit's primary objectives were to 1) establish through testing of transactions whether (a) past surplus sales were made in accordance with established policies and procedures, (b) sales were appropriately priced, (c) receipts were deposited in a timely manner, and (d) any assets were misappropriated; and 2) identify any weaknesses in the current internal control structure and make recommendations for improvement.
Results: Based on their agreed-upon procedures work, Francis and Company verified that all proceeds from SCL surplus sales tested for the period 2007-2011 were accounted for. However, we have concerns about the Salvage Unit's ability to provide adequate safeguards over surplus yard assets. Accordingly, we developed several recommendations to improve internal controls over the safeguarding of those assets.
May 28, 2014
Focus: To determine in what ways unions representing employees working in Seattle responded to the opportunity to waive the City's Paid Sick and Safe Time regulations through collective bargaining.
Results: Of 56 unions we contacted that represent employees eligible for the City's Paid Sick and Safe Time regulations, 19 did not waive the requirements, 22 waived the requirements, and 15 unions that have multiple contracts waived the requirements in some cases and not others.
May 22, 2014
Focus: To identify: 1) practices related to police chief selection, confirmation, employment contracts, and re-confirmation in cities similar to Seattle; and 2) any recommended best practices in these areas from academics or professional organizations with expertise in policing and police accountability and professionalism.
Results: We surveyed 12 jurisdictions similar in size and policing environment to the City of Seattle (total sample of 13). We found that: 1) all the police chiefs in these 13 cities are appointed by either the Mayor or City Manager; 2) 5 cities have a process for confirming these appointments and the remaining 8 do not; 3) none of the cities has a reconfirmation process in place; 4) only 3 cities have employment contracts with their police chiefs, and 5) 12 of the 13 police chiefs serve at will and do not have term limits on their service.
To identify best practices, we interviewed officials from the Police Executive Research Forum, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the cities of Baltimore, MD; Bridgeport, CT; Denver, CO; and Nashville, TN. We obtained opinions from these officials on the advantages and disadvantages of reconfirmation, term limits, and employment contracts and factors that contribute to a successful police chief selection process.
May 20, 2014
Focus: To determine whether: 1) the recent bid process for police impound services complied with State of Washington and City of Seattle laws; 2) the City obtained the technologies it desired; 3) opportunities for women and minority owned businesses (WMBE) increased or decreased under the new contract; and 4) retrieval storage lots meet requirements for location and accessibility.
Results: We found that:
- The City complied with State and City laws related to public procurement, towing, and impounds in conducting the Request for Proposal (RFP) and contract award processes.
- The City was successful in obtaining the new technologies it desired.
- The percentage of impounds and storage days provided by WMBE firms has decreased under the new contract.
- Two of the contractor's 3 storage and release lots comply with the contract requirements. We question whether the south end lot is easily accessible to a public transit route.
April 30, 2014
Focus: To report on the implementation status as of December 2013 of 350 recommendations from audit reports issued by our office from January 2007 through December 2013.
Results: As of December 2013, 67 percent (234 out of 350) were implemented, 23 percent (82 out of 350) were pending, and 10 percent (34 out of 350) did not warrant further follow-up.
April 29, 2014
Focus: We conducted an audit of the internal controls over customer account transactions for Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) and Seattle City Light (SCL). We reviewed the applicable policies and procedures to determine if the internal controls in place were adequate to prevent and/or detect inappropriate utility account transactions. We also conducted data mining to review utility account transactions.
Results: Overall, we found that current controls over utility account transactions are adequate, and that SPU and SCL have taken several actions in the last two years to strengthen these controls. However, we also noted several areas requiring further strengthening of controls, including several related to improving SPU and SCL's procedures for monitoring for inappropriate transactions with the use of exception reporting.
April 22, 2014
Focus: The Office of City Auditor contracted with the University of Washington to conduct an evaluation of the impacts of the City's Paid Sick and Safe Leave Ordinance on employers and employees.
Results: After the Ordinance was in effect for one year, the evaluation determined that the majority of employers (96%) are offering some paid leave to full time employees, with 62% also offering leave to their part time employees. However, 39% of employers either do not cover full- and part-time employees as required by the law, and/or do not offer as many hours as the law requires. Employers reported that implementation difficulties were frustrating but transient. The cost of providing leave was tracked by very few employers, but those reporting cited costs of less than half a percent of gross revenues, with far less usage than anticipated. Seventy percent of employers said they support the ordinance and view paid leave as a valuable and important benefit for their workers. Interviews with a small group of employees indicate that employees appreciate having a "safety net" that allows them to take time off to care for themselves or their sick family members. However, there are many employees who still do not have access to the benefit, especially those working for employers with 250 or more employees.
April 8, 2014
Focus: To conduct research on six cities that elect some or all councilmembers by district, in preparation for Seattle to transition to a district election system. We contacted each of the six cities and asked them 16 questions developed by the interdepartmental team for district elections.
Results: We received written responses from five city council offices and one executive office. We found that most of the cities do not organize legislative or executive functions by election district, and are instead organized by city function or issue. We also found that city council offices operated similar to Seattle, with few district distinctions.
April 2, 2014
The Seattle City Council adopted a resolution (31393) in July 2012 directing an interdepartmental team, that included a representative from the Office of City Auditor, to hire a consultant to assess the Seattle Department of Transportation's (SDOT) organizational structure and operations. The consultant's September 3, 2013 report represented the completion of Phase I of this project. The City Council resolution also called for a Phase II to follow up on areas identified in Phase I for further analysis.
An April 2, 2014 memo summarizes the recommendations of the interdepartmental team's recommendations to SDOT for Phase II, which were to: 1) conduct a one-time condition survey of non-arterial streets throughout the City; and 2) fully develop and host a web-based, interactive communication tool ("dashboard") on which the department's most critical outcome-based performance measures are summarized and easily accessible. SDOT agreed with these recommendations, and the Seattle City Council approved funding to support implementing these recommendations.
March 31, 2014
Since 2008, our office has published a number of reports in the area of public safety. These reports are a mix of traditional audits and non-audit projects.
Links to reports from 2012 and years earlier will take you to the Seattle.gov Archive web site.
In addition to our published reports, we are currently:
- Continuing program evaluation work for Career Bridge and SYVPI, and
- Acting as the project manager/liaison for three federal grants related to improving law enforcement in the City.
Tacoma Whole Child Initiative
October 16, 2015
Rethinking School Discipline with the Oakland Unified School District
July 17, 2015
Special presentation on how the Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) has reduced school suspensions by 47% and is working to eliminate racial disparity.
City of Seattle, King County, University of Washington School of Social Work - Communities in Action, Seattle Public Schools' African American Male Scholar Think Tank, Rainier Beach Action Coalition, Community Center for Education Results-The Road Map Project
Recorded Presentation: http://www.seattlechannel.org/videos?videoid=x57138
Presentation Slides: Oakland's Story
Background: In 2010, OUSD began an integrated 4-pronged approach to reducing discipline and eliminating racial disproportionality. They have achieved significant outcomes, including a 47% decrease in suspensions. The four evidence-based components of their approach are:
- Restorative Justice - See this Sept 2014 report on OUSD's Restorative Justice program and outcomes http://www.ousd.k12.ca.us/cms/lib07/CA01001176/Centricity/Domain/134/OUSD-RJ%20Report%20revised%20Final.pdf
- Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) - OUSD's PBIS consultant is Seattle-based Dr. Lori Lynass; see her video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZmJJx-G43U Also see PBIS website https://www.pbis.org/ and http://pbisnetwork.org/resources/
- Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) - See TIC website http://www.samhsa.gov/nctic/trauma-interventions
- Culturally Relevant Instruction - See this video of Christopher Chatmon, Director of OUSD's African American Male Achievement Office http://www.ousd.k12.ca.us/aama Also see this January 2015 report on OUSD's Manhood Development Program: The Black Sonrise http://ousd.k12.ca.us/Page/12267
Presentations on Seattle Juvenile Domestic Violence
April 29, 2015
Presentation on ACE’s: Learn about the stunning link between childhood trauma and adult public health problems
July 24, 2013
On July 24, 2013, the Office for Education and the Office of City Auditor sponsored a presentation on a significant epidemiological study by the Centers for Disease Control that traces the origins of many adult public health problems to a common source: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs).
The first research results were published in 1998, followed by 57 other publications through 2011. The research showed that there was a direct link between childhood trauma and adult onset of chronic disease (including heart disease, lung cancer, diabetes and many autoimmune diseases), as well as depression, suicide, being violent, and becoming a victim of violence.
Dr. Laura Porter, Director of ACE Partnerships at the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services presented findings from the ACEs study and describe efforts in Washington State to incorporate this research into practice.
Then, Isabel Munoz-Colon from the City of Seattle Office for Education and Sara L. Rigel, from the Seattle and King County Public Health Department described a new pilot program that incorporates learning from the ACEs study into practice in Seattle Public Schools.
University of Washington/City of Seattle Research Colloquium
December 7, 2012