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The local inflows to the Cedar River, including tributary and subsurface inflows, downstream of Landsburg Diversion Dam, at which point most of the City's instream flow commitments will be monitored.
As applied in the HCP, the process of adaptive management is defined with three basic elements: (i) an initial operational decision or project design made in the face of uncertainty about the impacts of the action; (ii) monitoring and research to determine impacts of actions; and (iii) changes to operations or project design in response to new information.
A fish population or stock that rears as adults in a lake and spawns in a river or tributary of a river.
A recently hatched juvenile salmonid that has not emerged from the gravel and that still has its yolk sac.
A fan-shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads, typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain.
Soils deposited by running water.
Fish that live in the sea but breed in fresh water.
Armoring (bed and banks)
The hardening of stream banks to reduce erosion potential using hard (rocks or structures) or soft (biotechnical) engineering techniques.
Bodies of water such as rivers, streams, lakes, and wetlands.
A quick change in channel course that occurs when a stream suddenly breaks through its banks.
Hardening of stream banks to reduce erosion potential using hard (rocks or structures) or soft (biotechnical) engineering techniques.
Basal area (of a tree)
The cross-sectional area of the trunk, 4.5 feet above the ground; (per acre) the sum of the basal areas of the trees on an acre; used as a measure of forest density.
Changes in average size of stream bed material from smaller to larger dimensions through time, typically in response to changes in stream or watershed characteristics which would contribute to either great average flows or greater local velocities within the channel.
Substrate that is too heavy to stay suspended in water and is transported along the bottom of the stream by bouncing, rolling, or sliding.
Best Management Practices (BMPs)
Methods, measures, or practices designed to reduce adverse impacts, usually applied as a system of practices rather than a single practice.
Biological diversity; the combination and interactions of genetic diversity, species composition, and ecological diversity in a given place at a given time.
Features of a previous forest that are retained at timber harvest or left after natural disturbances, including large old-growth or other snags, stumps, live trees, logs, soil communities, hardwood trees, and shrubs.
Trees felled by high wind.
A unit for measuring wood volume in a tree, log, or board. A board foot is commonly 1 foot by 1 foot by 1 inch, but any shape containing 144 cubic inches of wood equals one board foot.
A hydrologically isolated, low nutrient wetland that receives its water from precipitation only. Bogs typically have no inflow and rarely have outflows, and have specially adapted vegetation such as sphagnum moss, Labrador tea, bog laurel, sundews, and some sedges. Bogs may have an overstory of spruce, hemlock, cedar, or other tree species, and may be associated with open water bodies.
A stream or river characterized by flow within several channels, which successively meet & divide. Braiding often occurs when sediment loading is too great to be carried by a single channel.
Adult fish used for breeding in a hatchery.
A forested strip left or treated differently during timber harvest to protect sensitive ecosystems (e. g., streams, wetlands and old growth) or fish or wildlife habitat. Management activities such as planting or thinning may be allowed in buffers if they are consistent with the conservation objectives for the buffer.
A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood of a tree that each year produces additional wood and bark cells. This layer is responsible for the diameter growth of a tree.
Candidate species, federal
Any species being considered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce for listing as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, as amended, but not yet the subject of a proposed rule.
Candidate species, state
A wildlife species that is under review by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife for possible listing as endangered, threatened, or sensitive when sufficient evidence suggests that its status may meet criteria defined for endangered, threatened, or sensitive in WAC 232-12-297.
The cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of trees or other growth. Also used to describe layers of vegetation or foliage below the top layer of foliage in a forest, as when referring to the multi-layered canopies or multi-storied conditions typical of ecological old-growth forests.
The degree to which the boles, branches, and foliage (canopy) block penetration of sunlight to the forest floor or obscures the sky; determined from measurements of density (percent closure) taken directly under the canopy.
Predaceous ground beetles from the family Carabidae, a large family of beetles. Many feed on pest species.
An approach to mitigate carbon emissions by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and storing it instead of releasing it into the atmosphere.
The maximum number of organisms that can be sustained in a given area of habitat.
A large-scale, high intensity natural or human-caused disturbance that occurs infrequently, such as insect or disease outbreaks, extraordinary flooding, or severe fire, that would require action to protect drinking water quality, protect public safety, and prevent significant damage to natural resources.
The removal of trees for sale from an area or areas of forest that experienced a catastrophic event.
A tree or snag with holes or openings caused by fire, rot, or limb breakage, or excavated by birds. Such trees are used for roosting, reproduction, and foraging by birds and mammals.
Cedar River Basin
The entire area that drains into the Cedar River above Lake Washington.
Cedar River Municipal Watershed
An administrative unit of land; the 90,546-acre municipal watershed within the upper part of the Cedar River Basin, upstream from the City’s water intake at Landsburg Diversion Dam. It is composed of eight major subbasins and 27 subbasins, 26 of which drain into the Cedar River. It supplies about 2/3 of the drinking water to Seattle Public Utilities’ water service area.
A suite of characteristics, often applied to a reach of stream within a given channel type (see below), with significantly variability in time and space. Often complexity refers to variability in physical channel characteristics such as frequencies and dimensions of pools, woody debris, and substrate sizes
A process of channel adjustment by which the stream bed cuts into and ultimately establishes a lower bed elevation
Segments of stream which share a unique suite of physical attributes, commonly related to gradient, valley confinement, and adjacent landforms and helps predict the reference or stable condition of the reach.
Fish in the family Salmonidae that belong to the genus Salvelinus. For example, bull trout is a char.
A silvicultural system and type of regeneration harvest that is widely used in the Pacific Northwest. It involves removal of nearly all standing trees within a given harvest area. This system focuses on promoting regeneration of species that thrive in full sunlight. It is also the most efficient and economical method of harvesting timber. As defined by Forest Practices Rules (1995), “…a harvest method in which the entire stand of trees is removed in one timber harvesting operation. Except as provided in WAC 222-30-110, an area remains clearcut until: It meets the minimum stocking requirements under WAC 222-34-010(2) or 222-34-020(2); and the largest trees qualifying for the minimum stocking levels have survived on the area for five growing seasons or, if not, they have reached an average height of four feet.”
Soil particles carried by water that are greater than 2 mm in size; usually gravel, cobble, and boulders.
Coarse woody debris
Large pieces of wood in forests, including logs (down dead trees), pieces of logs, large branches, stumps, and snags (standing dead trees). Provides valuable habitat for many kinds of animals and contributes significantly to biodiversity of conifer forests.
Commercial As used in this HCP, the removal of some trees (typically less than half) for commercial sale from Thinning older timber stands outside the ecological reserve. The process also includes the removal of weak, diseased or dying trees, with the intent of providing revenue while maintaining or improving the growth, health and wind-firmness of the leave trees. Compared to conventional commercial thinning, the commercial thinning included in the HCP will also have the objectives of developing characteristics of older forest and increasing biological diversity.
Cedar River Instream Flow Oversight Commission, to be established as part of the HCP pursuant to the Instream Flow Agreement.
A phase in which the canopy closes and competition among trees becomes intense in a developing stand. Also sometimes called stem exclusion.
Monitoring performed to determine whether HCP programs and elements are implemented as written.
The location(s) in the Cedar River at which measurements are made to assure compliance with instream flow and flow downramping rate requirements.
Refers to one of the four major types of commitment in the HCP: watershed management, anadromous fish mitigation, instream flows, or monitoring and research.
A measure of the extent to which conditions between different areas of similar or related habitat provide for successful movement of fish or wildlife species, supporting populations on a landscape level.
A collective set of measures to avoid, minimize, or mitigate the potential take (or equivalent of take) of species addressed by the HCP, or for protecting, rehabilitating, enhancing, or restoring habitats for these species.
Habitat that is distributed continuously or nearly continuously across the landscape.
Slopes which drain to or funnel water towards a common point upslope of a stream channel.
These roads are needed for long term use and provide access to critical infrastructure, and support land management and protection activities. Core roads also include those used for access to adjacent properties. Activities on these roads will be governed by Road Use Agreements (see Neighboring Properties Chapter).There are 14.3 miles of core roads in the South Fork Tolt Municipal Watershed.
The minimum instream flows (cfs) maintained in the Cedar River below the Landsburg Diversion Dam to protect habitat conditions for anadromous fish under very adverse and infrequent hydrologic conditions (on average, one-in-ten years). Critical instream flows are lower for most periods of the year than normal flows, which are provided, on average, 9 in 10 years.
Areas designated under the federal Endangered Species Act, defined as “specific areas with the geographic area occupied by the species, at the time it is listed . . . on which are found those physical or biological features (I) necessary to the conservation of the species and (II) which may required special management considerations or protection; and . . . specific areas outside the geographic area occupied by the species, at the time it is listed . . . upon a determination . . . that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species.”
Critical habitat unit (CHU)
Units of critical habitat; see also “Northern Spotted Owl CHU.”
See “Canopy closure.”
Areas, places, buildings, structures, outdoor works of art, natural features, and other objects having a special historical, cultural, archaeological, architectural, community, or aesthetic value.
Culturally sterile deposits
Deposits that contain no identifiable cultural material.
The process and procedure for evaluating, storing, documenting and archiving culturally significant material, including artifacts, documents, maps and oral histories.
An active forest restoration strategy involving the deliberate selective felling of trees to achieve a particular ecological objective. This technique is planned for riparian forests where trees will be felled towards a stream channel in order to enhance current levels of in-stream wood and accelerate growth of remaining riparian trees.
An over-steepened slope face created by excavating into a hillside, such as during road construction.
The part of the road cross-section where material was excavated from the hill slope to provide space for road driving surface and ditch. Cut-slopes are designed to be constructed at an angle appropriate for the material on site.
The water in Chester Morse Lake below the depth of 1,532 feet, the natural gravity outlet of the lake.
A moving mass of rock fragments, soil, and trees, with a high volume of water that can travel at speeds greater than 60 mph and travel long distances down steep confined mountain channels. Debris flows are typically caused by storm events.
Deconstruction; work on roads no longer to be used that leaves them in a condition suitable to control erosion and maintain water movement. Methods of decommissioning include removal of bridges, culverts, and fills in accordance with WAC 222-24-050.
Dewatering (of redds)
A condition in which water flows are decreased to a level where redds (nests of salmonid eggs) are exposed.
Diameter at breast height (dbh)
The diameter of a tree, including bark, measured 4.5 ft above the ground on the uphill side of the tree and measured in inches.
As used in the HCP, water volumes or flows that can be provided, at the discretion of the City, to increase instream flows for fish at different times when it is needed, typically as recommended by the Cedar River Instream Flow Oversight Committee.
The movement of juvenile, subadult, or adult animals from one sub-population to another. Individuals may disperse for foraging, breeding, and other reasons.
Dispersal (lateral dispersal of high flows)
Refers to the capacity of a stream to spread water during greater than annual peak flow events across a broad area, thereby minimizing the disturbance to the stream bed by changes in the frequency or magnitude of peak flows.
Distribution (of a species)
The spatial arrangement of individuals of a species within its range.
Significant change in forest structure or composition through natural events (such as fire, flood, wind, earthquake, or disease) or human-caused events (forest management).
An over-stocked, closed-canopy stand with little or no understory vegetation because of a lack of light penetration, and where growth is suppressed. These stands are typically less than 30 years old, but can be older.
Wood found on the forest floor in various stages of decomposition. As the wood decays it plays an essential role in forests and streams, including: food, shelter, growing sites for plants and fungi, soil enrichment, and stream habitat.
Reductions in instream flows as a result of changes in water or hydroelectric facility operations, most often expressed as a rate of drop of river water elevation in inches per hour.
Early detection/rapid response protocol
A prompt and coordinated containment and eradication response when new invasive species infestations are detected. This results in lower cost and less resource damage than implementing a long-term control program after the species is established.
Early seral – grass-forb stage
Very recently harvested or disturbed forest habitat characterized by dominance of grasses and other non-woody vegetation, defined in this HCP as such habitat that is 0-9 years of age. Tree seedlings are present, but not dominant, and shrubs can be present.
Early seral – open canopy stage
Recently harvested or disturbed forest habitat dominated by young trees (saplings) and shrubs, defined in this HCP as such habitat that is 10-29 years of age. Canopy closure is typically less than 60%.
Recently harvested or disturbed forest habitat dominated by young trees and shrubs.
Area of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed in which no timber harvest will be allowed for commercial purposes. Only limited restoration or ecological thinning and planting will be permitted for the purpose of accelerating habitat restoration. (Also Reserve.)
As used in this HCP, the experimental silvicultural practice of cutting, damaging, or otherwise killing some trees from some areas of older, overstocked, second-growth forest (typically over 30 years old). The intent of ecological thinning is to encourage development of the habitat structure and heterogeneity typical of late-successional and old-growth stands, characterized by a high level of vertical and horizontal stand structure, and to improve habitat quality for wildlife.
It is expected that techniques will include variable-density thinning to create openings, develop a variety of tree diameter classes, develop understory vegetation, and recruit desired species; and creating snags and logs by uprooting trees, felling trees, topping trees, injecting trees with decay-producing fungus, and other methods.
Ecological thinning does not have any commercial objectives. However, in those cases in which an excess of woody material is generated by felling trees, trees may be removed from the thinning site and may be sold or used in restoration projects on other sites.
A natural system composed of component organisms interacting with their environment.
A strategy or plan to provide for the needs of organisms associated with an ecosystem, typically focusing on habitat management.
An area where different ecological communities meet or where different successional stages or vegetative conditions within communities come together. Also, as used in the context of instream flows, that portion of a stream nearest to the wetted margins of the active stream channel.
Habitat that provides all components necessary for the survival of a specific population.
Monitoring to determine whether implemented HCP conservation strategies result in anticipated habitat conditions or effects on species.
A feature of a component. For example, a fish ladder would be an element of the anadromous fish mitigation component.
Those portions of objects that protrude above the surface of the water (e.g., logs). May be important for some species as an egress from the water.
Aquatic plants that are only partially submerged, and are typically rooted in the aquatic environment with the majority of photosynthesis occurring above the surface of the water (e.g., cattails).
Endangered species, federal
A designation as defined in Section 3 of the federal Endangered Species Act for a species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
Endangered species, state
A wildlife species native to the State of Washington that is seriously threatened with extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range within the state.
An improvement of a structural or functional attribute that may or may not restore the original linkages to other parts of the ecosystem [based on Kaufmann].
To draw in and transport by the flow of a fluid. For example, some fish are likely entrained into the penstocks of the Cedar Falls Powerhouse through the intake structure.
Environmental Assessment (EA)
A formal document prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act to assess the effects that a particular action will have on the environment.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A document prepared under the State Environmental Policy Act to systematically analyze the effects that site-specific activities will have on the environment.
Federal Endangered Species Act, passed by the U. S. Congress in 1973 and last amended in 1982. Administered by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce.
The number of adult fish returning to spawn after harvest. Escapement goals are often established by fisheries managers.
A forest with minimal differences in age, generally less than 10 years, between trees.
The part of the road cross-section where material is placed on the downslope side of the hill to provide space for the road driving surface. The angle of the material is designed to be appropriate for the material used.
Soil particles carried by water that are less than 2 mm in size; usually clay and silt.
Broken and fragmented rock, often in angular blocks, formed on gentle mountain slopes through weathering processes, particularly freezing and thawing.
Firm block (of water)
As part of the instream flow regime, a specified volume of water (2,500 acre-feet) that the City would provide, as a commitment, between June 17 and August 4 in most normal years to supplement the required minimum instream flows in a manner that benefits anadromous fish.
A structure typically used to allow passage of adult fish upstream over barriers that block their migration.
Screens installed on water intakes to reduce juvenile and adult fish entrainment and injury from impingement.
Flow stable mode
An operational mode for a hydroelectric project that maintains stable flow downstream of the project, such that the project does not peak (fluctuate flow) with electrical load (demand).
Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology (the study of the human skeleton), most often in cases where the remains are more or less skeletonized. A forensic anthropologist can also assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable.
A range of human interventions affecting forest ecosystems that vary depending on the management objectives.
The sequential change in composition, abundance, and patterns of species that occurs as a forest matures after an event in which most of the trees are removed. The sequence of biological communities in a succession is called a sere, and the communities are called seral stages.
A free-swimming, juvenile salmonid that has recently emerged from the gravel and has fully absorbed its yolk sac.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A computer system for collecting, storing, retrieving, transforming, displaying, and analyzing spatial or geographic data, accomplished by linking areas or map features with associated attributes for a particular set of purposes, including the production of a variety of maps and analyses.
As used in the HCP, a deposit of sediment at the advancing front edge of a glacier. A glacial moraine is deposited wherever a glacier pauses, marking the farthest extent of the end of the advance, and is often crescent shaped. Sediment may also be deposited laterally.
A living and growing tree.
The process that results in a gully: landforms created by running water eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside, that resemble large ditches or small valleys.
The sum total of environmental conditions of a specific place occupied by plant or animal species or a population of such species. A species may require or use more than one type of habitat to complete its life cycle.
Habitat conservation plan (HCP)
As defined under Section 10 of the federal Endangered Species Act, a plan required for issuance of an incidental take permit for a listed species. Called “conservation plans” under the Act, HCPs can address multiple species, both listed and unlisted, and can be long term. HCPs provide for the conservation of the species addressed, and provide certainty for permit applicants through an implementation agreement between the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Commerce and a non-federal entity.
Steelhead that grow to an average weight of one-half pound during their initial ocean residence.
A form of "take" under the federal ESA, defined in federal regulations. Such acts may include significant habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding or sheltering.
Habitat Conservation Plan, also termed "conservation plan" under the ESA. An approved HCP is needed for an incidental take permit.
HCP year 1
That period of time through the end of the first full calendar year following the effective date of the HCP.
Very steep, concave portions of the headwaters of a stream, including tops of rock ledges and areas of a basin that are usually wet and unstable.
The source of a stream or stream system.
The high part of the normal minimum instream flow curve, for flows in the Cedar River below the Landsburg Diversion Dam, during the period between October 8 and December 31 for some normal years. The applicability of this curve in any given year is based upon storage and hydrologic conditions prevailing each fall and is determined by specific flow-switching criteria and procedures. High-normal flows are intended to provide more beneficial habitat conditions for anadromous fish in the fall than low-normal flows or critical flows.
The top, organic layer of soil, made up mostly of leaf litter and humus (decomposed organic matter).
A method for underwater assessment of fish using an echolocator (device that uses sound to locate objects).
Graphical relationship of stream discharge (rate of flow) plotted against time.
Pertaining to the cycling, movement, distribution, and properties of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
The state of forest vegetation whereby vegetative water usage and the effect of forest on hydrology are similar to that of unharvested forest vegetation. As defined in the HCP, hydrologically mature vegetation has a canopy closure of 70 percent or more, and a diameter (dbh) of 9 inches or more.
The cycling, movement, distribution, and properties of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
A part of the application for an incidental take permit for an approved HCP, an agreement that specifies the terms and conditions, resources, schedule of activities, and expectations for the parties to the agreement.
Compliance monitoring; monitoring to determine whether the HCP conservation strategies are implemented as written.
As defined by the Endangered Species Act, the taking of federally listed animal species, if the taking is incidental to, and not the purpose of, carrying out otherwise lawful activities. See also “Take.”
Incidental Take Permit
A permit issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service to a non-federal entity that allows the incidental take of a threatened or endangered species; requires the permittee to carry out specified actions that minimize and mitigate the impacts of the incidental take to the maximum extent practicable, and in a manner that does not appreciably reduce the likelihood of survival or recovery of the species in the wild.
Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV)
A viral pathogen present in nearly all populations of sockeye salmon, and some populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon, that causes the potentially fatal disease Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis.
Deeply incised stream channels with steep side slopes, with high mass-wasting hazard (landslide potential).
River and stream volume and flow patterns over time.
Structures through which water from the reservoir or river are taken into the City’s hydroelectric generation and water supplies facilities; includes the penstocks and the Howell-Bunger valve.
Integrated pest management
An approach to pest management that uses current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.
Interior forest conditions
Forest conditions that are largely not affected by edge effects, which occur where large openings abut the forest. Edge effects that are known to occur in some areas include penetration of light and wind, temperature changes, and increased predator activity. Interior forest condition are achieved at sufficient distance from an edge so that edge effects are minimal.
The condition whereby shorelines, streams, or vegetation are flooded by elevated water levels. When the inundating waters cover an area that had flowing water, such as the lower reach of a stream above a lake, inundation can result in increased sedimentation and decreased oxygen levels within the substrate.
Non-indigenous species (e.g. plants or animals) that adversely affect the habitats they invade economically, environmentally or ecologically.
One to nine artifacts discovered in a location that appear to reflect a single event or activity.
In general, applies to species in which individuals breed more than once in their lifetimes. Applies to salmonids that can survive initial spawning to spawn again in subsequent seasons. Resident trout and many individual anadromous steelhead trout are iteroparous, whereas salmon are semelparous (spawning only once).
A maiden salmonid that survives its first spawning and returns to the sea.
Habitat that is utilized by and often required for a species for breeding or rearing or both.
Lacustrine fringe wetland
Wetlands that generally occur on river floodplains and along lakeshores and are influenced by seasonal variations in groundwater levels. These wetlands support an abundance of warm-water loving plant and animal species.
A body of open water greater than 20 acres in area and at least 6.6 ft deep at low water.
Lake Washington Basin
The entire area draining into Lake Washington. Also known as the Lake Washington Watershed.
Landsburg Diversion Dam
Low dam at the site of the diversion for uptake of drinking water operated by Seattle Public Utilities, located at River Mile 21.8 of the Cedar River. As a run-of-the-river dam, it does not create a significant impoundment of water upstream. Also referred to as Landsburg Dam.
Landsburg Drainage Subbasin
The 79,951 acres of land within the hydrographic basin of the Cedar River Watershed that drains into the Cedar River above the Landsburg Diversion Dam. The City owns all but 499 acres of this subbasin.
A large regional unit of land that typically includes a mosaic of biological communities.
Large woody debris (LWD)
Large pieces of wood in or partially in stream channels, including logs, pieces of logs, root wads of trees, and other large chunks of wood. LWD provides streambed and bank stability and habitat complexity. Often called coarse woody debris when within forests.
Forest in the later stages of forest succession; the sequential change in composition, abundance, and patterns of species that occurs as a forest matures. As used in the HCP, refers to conifer forests 120-189 years of age. Characterized by increasing biodiversity and forest structure, such as a number of canopy layers, large amounts of coarse woody debris, light gaps (canopy openings), and developed understory vegetation.
Standing waters, such as lakes, ponds, and some wetlands.
Connectivity between watershed processes and sensitive aquatic resources . Also used to describe connections between critical aquatic resources and those historic and current management activities most responsible for changes to these resources
Under the ESA, a species, or sub-unit of a species, formally listed in the Federal Register as endangered or threatened by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce. A listing refers to the species or sub-unit by scientific and common name and specifies over what portion of its range it is endangered or threatened. (See also ESA.)
Listed wildlife species, federal
Under the federal Endangered Species Act, species, or sub-unit of a species, formally listed in the Federal Register as endangered or threatened by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce. A listing refers to the species or sub-unit by scientific and common name and specifies over what portion of its range it is endangered or threatened.
Listed wildlife species, state
Wildlife species that are classified as endangered, threatened, or sensitive under Washington State law. Defined in WAC 232-12-297.
The shallow region of a lake or pond, to a depth of about 3 ft, which may have highly productive emergent macrophytes (large plants) that utilize the resources of both the terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
A holding pen used in conjunction with fish traps; the trap captures the fish and the live-box holds them until removal.
A down tree, or tree segment, lying on or near the ground. Logs provide valuable habitat for wildlife. Also, a segment of a harvested tree that may be suitable for lumber and other products.
Flowing waters such as streams and rivers.
Lower municipal watershed
That area of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed generally west and south of Cedar Falls which largely drains to the mainstem of the Cedar River downstream of Masonry Dam.
The low part of the normal minimum instream flow curve, for flows in the Cedar River below the Landsburg Diversion Dam, during the period between October 8 and December 31 for some normal years. The applicability of this curve in any given year is based upon storage and hydrologic conditions prevailing each fall and is determined by specific flow-switching criteria and procedures. Low-normal flows are intended to provide more beneficial habitat conditions for anadromous fish in the fall than critical flows.
The primary stream channel of a river into which tributaries flow, extending from the mouth of the river to its furthest headwater.
A set of procedures designed to accomplish a specific management objective.
Brachyramphus marmoratus. A Pacific seabird that typically nests in mature or old-growth forests within 50 miles of the marine environment; listed as a federal and state threatened species.
The downslope movement of earth caused by gravity. Includes but is not limited to landslides, rock falls, debris avalanches & creep. It does not include surface erosion by running water. It may be caused by natural erosional processes, by natural disturbances, or by human disturbances.
Forest that is entering later stages of forest succession. As used in the HCP, refers to conifer forests 80-119 years of age. While less so than late-successional forest, mature forest is characterized by increasing biodiversity and forest structure, such as a number of canopy layers, large amounts of coarse woody debris, light gaps (canopy openings), and developed understory vegetation.
Area referred to in the HCP that is outside the ecological reserve and in which timber can be harvested for commercial purposes.
Measurements of the effectiveness of a specific action.
Mid seral – closed canopy stage
Forest that is in the middle stage of a sere, or sequences of ecological communities in a forest succession. As used in the HCP, refs to conifer forest that is 30-79 years of age, in which the forest canopy is relatively closed, allowing little light penetration and understory development.
Methods of reducing adverse impacts of a project by (1) limiting the degree or magnitude of the action and its implementation; (2) rectifying the impact by repairing, rehabilitating or restoring the affected environment; (3) reducing or eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action; or (4) compensating for the impact by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments.
Taxa of potential concern; a term frequently used to describe status, but not a legal designation; species native to the state of Washington that: (1) were at one time classified as endangered, threatened, or sensitive; (2) require habitat that has limited availability during some portion of its life cycle; (3) are indicators of environmental quality; (4) require further field investigations to determine population status; (5) have unresolved taxonomy which may bear upon their status classification; (6) may be competing with and impacting other species of concern; or (7) have significant popular appeal.
The process of collecting information to evaluate if objectives and anticipated results of a management plan are being realized or if implementation is proceeding as planned. This may include assessing the effects upon a species' habitat on non-organic components of the watershed, such as accretion flows.
As used in the HCP, a deposit of sediment at the advancing front edge of a glacier. A glacial moraine is deposited wherever a glacier pauses, marking the farthest extent of the end of the advance, and is often crescent shaped. Sediment may also be deposited laterally.
Morphology (channel, wetland)
The form and structure (characteristic physical features) of streams and wetlands.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A law passed in 1969 that requires all federal agencies to consider and analyze all significant environmental impacts of any action proposed by those agencies, to inform and involve the public in the agency’s decision-making process, and to consider the environmental impacts in the agency’s decision-making process.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
A branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce, which is the listing authority for marine mammals and anadromous fish under the Endangered Species Act.
Any wildlife species naturally occurring in a specific area of Washington for purposes of breeding, resting, or foraging, excluding introduced species not found historically in this state; defined by WAC 232-12-297.
Natural Heritage Program
A Washington Department of Natural Resources program that identifies, selects, and nominates outstanding natural areas in Washington State; also, oversees state listing of plants.
Timber harvest methods that are intended to sustain the ecological functions of the forest by carrying over key elements (biological legacies) of the previous forest, including live trees, snags, down wood, and other ecologically important elements of the mature forest; developed as an alternative to traditional industrial clearcut harvesting.
That portion of the Cedar River Watershed land base that is not part of the designated ecological reserve and in which timber can be harvested for commercial purposes. (See also Matrix.)
Non-firm block (of water)
As part of the instream flow regime, a specified volume of water (3,500 acre feet) that the City would provide, as a goal, between June 17 and August 4 in most normal years to supplement the required minimum instream flows in a manner that benefits anadromous fish.
Those animal and plant species that were not originally in a specific geographic area, but have been introduced, either intentionally or unintentionally, by humans.
The minimum instream flows (cfs) maintained in the Cedar River below the Landsburg Diversion Dam to provide beneficial habitat conditions for anadromous fish under other than conditions triggering critical flows. Normal instream flows, which are provided, on average, nine-in-ten years, are higher for most periods of the year than critical flows. During the fall there are two normal flow regimes, high normal and low normal, which are provided under different hydrologic conditions.
Northern spotted owl
Strix occidentalis caurina. A medium-sized, dark brown owl native to the Pacific coastal region that primarily nests and lives in old-growth forest; federally listed as a threatened species and listed as endangered by Washington State.
Northern Spotted Owl Critical Habitat Unit (CHU)
Area designated by the USFWS in 1991 (Fed. Reg. Vol. 57, Pp. 1796-1838) to protect remaining critical late-successional and old-growth forest habitat (and other areas) for the northern spotted owl and to reduce fragmentation. One of these units, WA-33, overlaps 22,845 acres of habitat in the eastern portion of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed.
Northern spotted owl site center
The location of status 1, 2 or 3 northern spotted owls.
Occupied marbled murrelet site
Areas used by marbled murrelets for nesting, as defined in WAC 222-16-010 (see Appendix 24).
Conditions in older conifer forest stands, with vertical and horizontal structural attributes sufficient to maintain some or all of the ecological functions of natural “ecological old-growth” forest, which is typically at least 200 years old and often much older.
As used in the HCP, native unharvested conifer forest in the Cedar River Municipal Watershed that is at least 190 years of age, but which does not necessarily exhibit “ecological old-growth” conditions.
Open water bodies
All lakes and ponds of any size without forest canopy above.
A juvenile fish that is migrating from one rearing environment to another.
One who studies the morphology and pathology of bones
The process of stacking digital representations of various spatial data on top of each other so that each position in the area covered can be analyzed and evaluated in terms of these combined data.
Palustrine emergent wetlands
Palustrine wetlands characterized by erect, rooted, herbaceous hydrophytes (plants adapted to water or waterlogged soils), excluding mosses and lichens, which are present for most of the growing season in most years. Includes wetlands often referred to as marshes and wet meadows.
Palustrine forested wetlands
Palustrine wetlands characterized by woody vegetation that is 20 ft tall or taller (trees).
Palustrine scrub-shrub wetlands
Palustrine wetlands dominated by woody vegetation less than 20 ft tall (shrubs and shrubby trees).
Freshwater (non-marine) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, or emergent mosses or lichens, and wetlands lacking vegetation that have an area of less than 20 acres and are no deeper than 6 ft; palustrine wetlands include marshes, swamps, bogs, and fens.
A juvenile salmonid rearing in fresh water at the stage at which it has developed parr marks before it reaches the smolt or sub-adult stage.
The vertical markings on a juvenile salmonid.
The open, mid-column zone in a body of water that is not associated with shoreline or shallow depths.
Large pipes that carry water from Masonry Dam to the Cedar Falls Powerhouse, for operation of hydroelectric turbines.
Persistent emergent vegetation
Erect, rooted, herbaceous vascular plants that may be temporarily to permanently flooded at the base but do not tolerate prolonged inundation of the entire plant, and that normally remain standing at least until the beginning of the next growing season.
An instrument for measuring water pressure.
A deformation of lower tree trunks resulting from physical forces associated with steep slopes, such as unstable soils or heavy snow loads, that put down-slope pressure on the tree trunks and cause a curved, rather than a straight, trunk at the base. Pistol butting is often a sign of unstable slopes.
A young tree, from the time its lower branches begin to die until the time the rate of crown growth begins to slow and crown expansion is noticeable. For the classification system used in the HCP, includes trees from 5.01 to 11.0 inches dbh.
Distinct areas within a stream channel defined by very low water surface slopes and relatively deep water.
A GIS term for a multi-sided figure that has area and which represents a habitat unit, man-made structure, or other spatial entity on a map.
A body of open water from 0.5 to 20 acres in area and at least 6.6 ft deep at low water.
The maintenance of intact ecosystems [based on Kaufmann].
The road cross-section, including cut-slope angle, ditch width and depth, road crown, in-slope or out-slope, and fill-slope angle. The road prism or cross-section designed to have angles appropriate to the material on site.
Probable maximum flood (PMF)
A flood that may be expected from the most severe combination of critical meteorological and hydrologic conditions that are reasonably possible in the drainage basin under study.
In a body of water, the deeper sediment bottom that is free of vegetation.
Proposed threatened or endangered species, federal
Species formally proposed in the Federal Register by the Secretary of Interior or the Secretary of Commerce for listing as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act; not a final designation.
A drainage structure constructed of wood, usually logs, placed beneath the surface of a road in two or more layers (first perpendicular to the road, then longitudinally) to facilitate the passage of water under the road, while supporting the road and traffic.
The area where several times during the winter the snowpack is partially or completely melted during warm periods and/or rainstorms.
Rattlesnake Lake Viewshed
Rattlesnake Lake and the land immediately surrounding, including Rattlesnake Ledge, that has been set aside for public usage.
See Stream reach.
Areas in rivers, streams, ponds, or lakes, where juvenile salmon and trout find food and shelter to live and grow.
Recruitment (of wood/trees)
The process of tree entry into a stream channel via natural processes or active restoration.
A term used in archaeology to denote all archaeological evidence, including the physical remains of past human activities, which archaeologists seek out and record in an attempt to analyze and reconstruct the past. In the main it denotes buried remains unearthed during excavation.
A salmonid fish’s nest, which is created by excavating a shallow pit in gravel where eggs are buried for incubation.
A general term for silvicultural systems that involve removal of most trees within a harvest area for the purpose of stand regeneration. (Regeneration harvest systems return the stand to an early stage of forest succession.) Such systems are commonly used for commercial timber harvest in the Pacific Northwest and include clearcutting, shelterwood harvest, seed tree harvest, and retention harvest.
Residual advanced regeneration
Trees that became established under the canopy of preceding forests stands.
Typically low gradient channels where extensive, long-term changes to key aquatic characteristics are predicted following large to modest changes in watershed processes due to natural causes & or anticipated human activity.
Planting of native trees, shrubs, and other plants to encourage development of habitat structure and heterogeneity, to improve habitat conditions for fish and wildlife, and to accelerate development of old-growth conditions or riparian forest function in previously harvested second growth.
As used in this HCP, a silvicultural intervention strategy applied in areas of young (usually 10 to 30 year-old) over-stocked forest with the intent of increasing biological diversity and wildlife habitat potential, accelerating the development of mature forest characteristics, and minimizing the amount of time a stand remains in the stem exclusion stage (a stage characterized by minimal light penetration and low biological diversity). This strategy protects water quality by reducing the risk of large scale catastrophic damage to the watershed (primarily through development of windfirmness and increased resistance to insect attack, which is exacerbated by the stress on intense competition among trees). Techniques for restoration thinning include cutting, girdling, or otherwise killing some trees in variable density thinning patterns, retaining a mix of species that is characteristic of natural site conditions, and leaving small gaps or openings characteristic of naturally regenerated forests that result from small natural disturbances such as wind or disease.
Revised Code of Washington (RCW)
A revised, consolidated, and codified form and arrangement of all the laws of the state that are of a general and permanent nature.
Habitat along lakes, rivers, and streams where the vegetation and microclimate are influenced by year-round or seasonal water and associated high water tables.
A zone adjacent to lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams where the microclimate, soil, and vegetation are typically, although not always, influenced by surface water and associated groundwater; this area forms an interface between the aquatic environments and adjacent terrestrial habitats and includes riparian habitat. Wetlands may or may not be located within this zone, and vegetation in a riparian zone may or may not include true riparian habitat.
River mile (RM)
Statue mile as measured along the center line of a river. River miles (RM) are measured upstream from the mouth of a river (e.g., RM 18.5), but can also used as a discrete measure of distance in a river or stream (e.g., 1-3 river miles).
Wetlands that are found within river and stream channels and are strongly influenced by seasonal runoff patterns. When inundated, riverine wetlands provide habitat for water-tolerant plants such as willows, and aquatic animals such as tadpoles and immature fish.
Working on the shape of the road to achieve the designed road cross-section or prism, including cut-slope angle, ditch width and depth, road crown, in-slope or out-slope, and fill-slope angle.
The number of years required to grow a stand to a desired size or maturity before harvest. Rotation age is the typical age of a stand at harvest in a particular harvest management regime.
Fish species belonging to the family Salmonidae, including trout, salmon, char, and whitefish species.
A young tree which is no longer a seedling but not yet a pole. As used in the HCP, trees from 2.01 to 5.0 inches dbh
Scratching the hardened road bed with equipment teeth. This softens it to allow vegetative growth, usually grasses or trees, during road decommissioning.
Scour (bed scour, debris flow scour, gravel scour, lateral scour)
Mobilization and transport of streambed gravel during high flows; the erosion of streambed and/or banks caused by flood water in a river or stream.
A mechanism for trapping juvenile fish, usually downstream migrants, by which the fish are pulled into a live box by a large screw mechanism that turns by the force of the water.
Forest stands in the process of regrowth following a stand-replacing disturbance.
In general, applies to species in which individuals breed only once in their lifetimes. Applies to salmonids that die after spawning, such as do all of the Pacific salmon species.
A portion of the aquatic (stream or wetland) network which either has been significantly altered or has a high likelihood of being altered due to natural causes & or anticipated human activity.
Soils with moderate or high flood hazard potential, or slow or very slow drainage rates, or that are formed in place (organics), or that are alluvial soils
Sensitive species, state
A wildlife species native to the state of Washington that is vulnerable or declining and is likely to become endangered or threatened in a significant portion of its range within the state without cooperative management or the removal of threats. Sensitive species are legally designated in WAC 232-12-011 and defined in WAC 232-12-297 Section 2.6.
A particular stage (ecological community) in a sere, or pattern of succession. As used in the HCP, applies to forest succession.
A popular form of rapid archaeological survey in the U.S. and Canada. It designates a series of test holes (0.50 m or less) in order to determine whether the soil contains any cultural remains that are not visible on the surface. The soil is sifted or screened through wire mesh to recover artifacts.
Excavated material that has been moved to the side and deposited within the limits of construction for a road or landing (for collecting logs during timber harvest), or that has been dumped over the side and outside the limits of construction. Sidecasting results in over-steepened slopes that, in very steep terrain, can cause slope instability and failure under certain conditions.
Material deposited adjacent to the road which is higher than the road surface and prevents surface water from flowing off the road. A berm can be a design feature in appropriate locations, but is often a problem-causing feature. Side-casting road material can result in over-steepened slopes that, in very steep terrain, can cause slope instability and failure under certain conditions. It is not always a problem-causing feature.
The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands in order to achieve management objectives. Includes such actions as thinning, planting, fertilizing, and pruning.
An index of forest productivity measured by the height of dominant trees at 50 years of age; Site Class I represents the highest productivity and Site Class V represents the lowest productivity.
Coarse and fine woody debris generated during logging operations or through wind, snow or other natural forest disturbances.
A measure of the steepness of terrain, equal to the tangent of the angle of the average slope surface with the horizontal, expressed in percent. A 100 percent slope has an angle with the horizontal of 45 degrees, a 70% slope has an angle of 35 degrees, and a 30 percent slope has an angle of 17 degrees.
The life stage of a juvenile salmon when it migrates to saltwater, involving physiological changes that adapt an individual for the change from fresh to salt water.
A standing dead tree.
An automated system of snowpack and related climate sensors operated by the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the Western United States. All SNOTEL sites measure snow water content, accumulated precipitation, and air temperature. Some sites also measure snow depth, wind speed, solar radiation, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. These data are used to forecast yearly water supplies, predict floods, and for general climate research.
A way that snow or ice can move by deforming its internal structure.
A unit of the biological classification system (taxonomic system) below the level of genus; a group of individual plants or animals (including subspecies and populations) that have common attributes and are capable of interbreeding. The federal ESA defines species to include subspecies and any "distinct population segment" of any species that interbreeds when mature. Such sub-units are also called "evolutionarily significant units."
Species of concern
As used in the HCP, any species addressed by the HCP and whose conservation strategies are taken into account by the HCP.
Species of concern, federal
An unofficial status designation given a species which appears to be in jeopardy, but for which insufficient information exists to support listing.
Species of concern, state
Those species listed as state endangered, state threatened, state sensitive, or state candidate, as well as species listed or proposed for listing by the Secretary of Interior or Secretary of Commerce
Species of greatest concern
As used in the HCP, 14 species addressed by the HCP that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act or otherwise are believed to be at significant risk in the region.
Stand (forest stand)
A group of trees that possesses sufficient uniformity in composition, structure, age, spatial arrangement, or condition to distinguish then from adjacent groups of trees.
State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA)
The state law that requires all state and local government agencies to consider and analyze the adverse environmental impacts of any action proposed by those agencies, to inform and involve the public in the agency’s decision-making process, and to consider the environmental impacts in the agency’s decision-making process
The group of fish spawning in particular lake(s) or stream(s) at a particular season that to a substantial degree do not interbreed with any group spawning in a different place, or in the same place at a different season.
A branch of geology that studies rock layers and layering (stratification).
The composition of a stream bed including either mineral or organic materials.
The natural replacement of one plant (or animal) community by another over time in the absence of disturbance.
Suitable marbled murrelet habitat
A contiguous forested area containing trees capable of providing nesting opportunities, as defined by WAC 222-16-010 (Appendix 24)
Suitable spotted owl habitat
Forest stands that meet descriptions defined in WAC 222-16-085 (Appendix 24).
A structure and outlet that conveys flow from a hydroelectric turbine to the river.
Tailrace rack (barrier)
A barrier that keeps fish from swimming upstream into a hydroelectric turbine.
A type of gate with a circular segment for its face, rotating about its center of curvature; commonly used on dams and diversion structures to control the flow of water over and under a spillway.
As defined under the ESA, to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, wound, kill, trap, capture or collect a federally listed endangered species of fish or wildlife. Take may include disturbance of listed species, nests, or habitat when disturbance is extensive enough to disrupt normal behavioral patterns and result in injury or death of individuals. (See also Harm.)
An accumulation of rock debris at the base of a cliff or rock formation, typically forming a slope that is often unstable.
These roads will provide access for a limited time for projects developed under the Tolt Land Management Plan. These activities may include habitat or stream restoration, forest restoration projects, environmental studies and invasive species removal. When the project has been completed and the road is no longer needed, it will be reclassified as nonessential and scheduled for decommissioning. Temporary Roads may be needed for 5 years or until 2060, or any time in between. Temporary roads must be maintained in a stable condition until they are eventually decommissioned. There are 11.8 miles of temporary roads in the SFTMW.
Threatened species, state
A wildlife species native to the state of Washington that is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout significant portions of its range within the state without cooperative management or the removal of threats. Threatened species are legally designated in WAC 232-12-011and defined in WAC 232-12-297 Section 2.5.
Transient snow zone
An elevation band, often between 1,500 and 3,000 feet in the Pacific Northwest, where winter precipitation has a high probability of falling as snow then rapidly melting a few days or weeks later as a result of warm air temperatures or rain fall. Rapid snow melt triggered by heavy rain storms and warm temperatures ("rain on snow") in this zone has historically contributed to extreme flooding in middle to low elevation streams during the fall and winter months
The Muckleshoot Indian Tribe.
A stream that flows into a larger stream or body of water.
Triple bottom line
An evaluation approach that captures an expanded spectrum of values and criteria for measuring organizational (and societal) success: economic, environmental and social.
A measure of the content of suspended matter that interferes with the passage of light though the water or in which visual depth is restricted. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality.
The machine used to convert the energy of water into electrical energy.
Type I-III waters
In the context of the HCP, fish bearing waters. Definition based on WAC 222-16-030.
Type IV waters
Streams without fish that influence Type I-III waters under the state classification system; streams with a well-defined channel, which may be perennial or intermittent. Definition based on WAC 222-16-030.
Type V waters
Streams without fish that influence Type IV waters under the state classification system; includes streams with or without well-defined channels. Definition based on WAC 222-16-030.
Type IX waters
A stream, or potential stream, which has not yet been typed under the state classification system.
Vegetation that grows in the lowest forest strata, often in the shade of the forest canopy. Plants in the understory consist of a mixture of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees together with understory shrubs and herbs.
Upper municipal watershed
That area of the Cedar River Municipal Watershed generally east of Cedar Falls which drains to the Chester Morse Lake Basin.
Increases in instream flows as a result of changes in facility operations, most often expressed as a rate of increase in water elevation in inches per hour.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
The federal agency that is the listing authority under the Endangered Species Act for plant and animal species other than marine mammals and anadromous fish.
A streamflow discharge measuring station; records stage, or height, of water, which can then be converted to discharge (cfs) based on stream geometry.
Walsh Lake Diversion Ditch
An approximately 4 mile-long channel constructed in the early 1930s to redirect the drainage waters from Walsh Lake (within the Cedar River Municipal Watershed) to a point in the Cedar River downstream of the Landsburg Diversion Dam and drinking water intake structures. Also referred to as Walsh Lake Ditch or Walsh Ditch.
Washington Administrative Code
All current, permanent rules of each Washington state agency, adopted pursuant to chapter 34.05 RCW.
A basin contributing water, organic matter, dissolved nutrients, and sediments to a stream, lake, or ocean.
A cumulative effects assessment prepared for forest practices in a watershed administrative unit under the Washington State Forest Practices Act with the long-term objective of protecting and restoring public resources and the productive capacity of fish habitat affected by forest management operations; produces prescriptions for future management; completed under WAC 222-22-050 or WAC 222-20-060, with prescriptions selected under WAC 222-22-010.
Watershed ecological reserve
Watershed reserve. Consistent with the City commitment not to harvest timber for commercial purposes within the municipal watershed, all forest within the municipal watershed, outside of developed areas, is sometimes referred to in the HCP as the watershed ecological reserve.
Weighted Usable Area (WUA)
An integrated measure of both habitat quantity and quality for fish as a function of river flow under the IFIM approach (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology), weighted for differences among sampling areas and locations within a habitat type with respect to depth, velocity, substrate, and cover, all attributes that affect the overall quality of habitat for fish. WUA is often calculated for life history aspects, such as spawning, rearing, or holding. WUA typically is zero at zero flow, increases as flows (thus velocity and depth) increase, then decreases from the flow that produces maximum WUA as velocity and depth increase beyond levels preferred by a given species or life stage. Optimum flows under IFIM are considered to be those yielding the maximum WUA, if attainable
Land where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water and has one or more of the following attributes: the land supports, at least periodically, predominately hydrophytic plants (plants adapted to water or waterlogged soil); substrate is predominately undrained hydric soils; and/or the substrate is non-soil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at some time during the growing season each year.
See Fish weir.
In Washington State, a fish stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage; can include native or introduced stocks.
Wildlife reserve tree
Defective, dead, damaged, or dying tree which provides habitat for wildlife species dependent on standing trees; defined in WAC 222-16-010.
The transport of logs from the point of felling to a collecting point or landing.