MAKING IT WORK
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REGULATORY REFORM PACKAGE APPROVED BY COUNCIL
On Monday, July 23, the Council unanimously approved Council Bill 117430, a regulatory reform package that makes a series of modest changes to land use regulations. Consistent with Economic Recovery Resolution 31282, adopted in 2011, these changes will promote economic development by making regulatory processes less convoluted and allowing more creativity in business locations and operations.
The package is based on a set of recommendations announced last fall by a task force of business, labor, environmental, and neighborhood representatives who worked with the Department of Planning and Development (DPD) to develop the proposal. Councilmembers and staff reviewed the proposal and agreed to advance the most promising of the recommendations. Elements of the ordinance approved by the Council include:
- Encouraging home-based businesses by allowing up to two non-resident employees, allowing structural alterations that would be consistent with zoning, and permitting limited use of outbuildings and advertising.
- Modifying the regulations covering detached accessory dwelling units by permitting them on through lots, with various housing types including townhouses, and allowing more flexibility in height.
- Allowing renewals of most temporary use permits to be processed as Type I, rather than Type II, decisions.
- Extending the existing code provision that allows developers with projects in urban centers and station area overlays to make decisions about the number of parking stalls they will build based on market demand (rather than an arbitrary City minimum requirement) to include all uses on multifamily- and commercial-zoned lots in urban villages that are located within a quarter-mile of a frequently served transit stop.
- Reducing by 50% the minimum parking requirements that apply on multifamily- and commercial-zoned lots that are located outside of an urban center, station area overlay or urban village but within a quarter-mile of a frequently served transit stop.
- Adopting revised standards for SEPA review in urban centers and urban villages with station area overlays where growth targets have not been met, exempting small and medium size projects from SEPA analysis. Since SEPA was adopted, many new, specific regulations have been codified that cover most of the issues subject to SEPA for small and medium size developments. Additionally, as part of the regulatory reform package, DPD’s authority to require developers to address transportation impacts and historic preservation issues (see companion Council Bill 117524) was codified.
- Modifying the City’s street-level use requirements to allow ground floor residential units in most Commercial 1 and Neighborhood Commercial 2 and 3 zones. Some of these areas are not suitable locations for the ground floor commercial uses that are currently required, and this change will prevent the continued proliferation of vacant storefronts in such areas. However, within designated pedestrian (P) zones and about 60 potential P zone areas identified by the Council, existing street-level use requirements will continue to apply. The Council also tasked DPD with further evaluating the potential P zone areas over the next year to determine whether they should be given the P zone designation or if ground floor residential uses should be permitted in these areas.
While most of these proposals raised little controversy, the Council did specific reviews of the three issues that seemed of the greatest concern and made some modifications to the legislation in response.
- There was significant controversy over a proposal to allow small commercial uses in multi-family areas in urban centers and station area overlays, especially on Capitol Hill, which includes more than half of the area that would have been affected by this proposal. After considerable discussion, the Planning, Land Use, and Sustainability (PLUS) Committee decided to remove this proposal from the package. While I thought the proposal had merit, the suggested benefits were generally modest and there were many public concerns.
- The proposal on parking requirements has been consistently misrepresented, and Councilmembers noted that this was a modest expansion of the current code (large areas of the City are already exempt from mandatory parking requirements) and that it in no way prohibits parking – it merely leaves the number of spaces up to market factors. However, with input from the Planning Commission, the Council did scale back the Executive’s original proposal by retaining existing parking requirements in industrial zones and reducing by 50% – rather than eliminating – the minimum parking requirements that apply in certain frequent transit service areas that are located outside urban centers, station area overlays, and urban villages.
- Councilmembers were concerned that limiting SEPA review could curb DPD’s authority to require landmark review, manage construction impacts, and require transportation mitigation. We also wanted to make sure that there was still a real opportunity for public and community involvement. Provisions extending DPD’s authority to require transportation impact evaluations were included in DPD’s original legislation, a companion bill that codified citywide landmark referral thresholds was prepared and approved by the Council, and DPD was able to document that they would continue to have authority over the other issues, and that there would continue to be opportunities for public involvement and legal challenges to projects through Design Review and other public processes. The PLUS Committee also reduced the size of commercial developments that would be exempt from SEPA and added a provision requiring any projects exempted to be at least 50% residential.
This legislation moves the land use code in the direction of more flexibility and less rigidity. My goal is to focus on outcomes and standards that are clearly necessary, and to encourage developers to be able to use creativity in project design and development in order to meet those standards. As we move Seattle in the direction of becoming more welcoming to denser development around transit facilities, we should promote good development, rather than trying to stop development because some of it is problematic. We do have or can create the tools to guide development in a positive direction, and we should emphasize that as the goal.
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NORTHGATE LIGHT RAIL STATION ACCESS PLAN
On Thursday, June 28, the Sound Transit Board approved my motion to create a new access strategy for the Northgate light rail station. This motion is the first effort to implement the new Sound Transit Board's policy direction that emphasizes developing a variety of access modes to get riders to Sound Transit stations. It commits Sound Transit to funding $10 million in bicycle and pedestrian facilities, including a major contribution towards the proposed bicycle/pedestrian bridge over Interstate 5. It also specifies that Sound Transit will only fund replacement parking for the park and ride spaces that are displaced, and that this parking will be implemented in ways that will facilitate new housing on the current park and ride lots.
The Northgate station will be built in an area that is generally still fairly auto-oriented and has one of the only two existing park and ride facilities in the City of Seattle (the other is under the freeway at 65th Street between Roosevelt and Green Lake). This park and ride is an important connection for Metro Transit riders. It includes not only a number of spaces owned by Metro Transit, but leased multi-use parking at Northgate Mall and Thornton Place.
The long range vision for Northgate calls for its transformation into an Urban Center, with housing, employment and light rail access, along with the evolution of the mall into a downtown like environment. Ridership is planned to triple when light rail replaces Metro buses as the primary transit mode, and many of these new riders are expected to walk, bike, or take buses to the station. New transit oriented development will make it easy and convenient for thousands of potential riders.
Sound Transit is required to replace or mitigate the loss of park and ride spaces that are displaced by the station and construction. This motion integrates that replacement with the long range vision for Northgate, including the development of transit oriented development on the park and ride lots.
The motion, which was approved unanimously by the Board, provides that Sound Transit will:
- Create a Northgate access improvement study to identify potential additional pedestrian and bike access improvements needed to enhance access to the current Transit Center and future Northgate Station inter-modal transit facility.
- Commit to fund 25% of the cost of the pedestrian/bicycle bridge across I-5 up to a maximum of $5 million. The City of Seattle will match Sound Transit's $5 million contribution towards the I-5 pedestrian/bicycle bridge costs. The City will also seek other funding partners to secure full funding to complete design and construction of the bridge (total cost approximately $20 million). If a full funding agreement for the implementation of the I-5 pedestrian/bicycle bridge cannot be completed by July 2015, the Sound Transit Board will reallocate any unspent bridge funds to other priority pedestrian/bicycle projects identified through the connectivity and access study processes.
- Commit to match up to $5 million in City investments in pedestrian/bicycle facilities in and around Northgate Station consistent with the improvements identified and recommended by the access study.
- Limit investment in park-and-ride facilities to a new parking garage that accommodates 450 Park and Ride stalls, preferably in shared use. The 450 stalls and any additional stalls funded by private investment may be used to replace parking now provided at the King County owned park and ride surface lot currently east of the proposed station to allow that lot to be made available for transit oriented development that will bring ridership to North Link and support the added vitality of the Northgate Urban Center.
I am very pleased that Sound Transit and the City have worked out a practical plan that integrates transit oriented development with multiple modes of access to the light rail station. This positions Northgate to take the next steps towards realizing the vision of the neighborhood and the City. That vision of becoming and urban center is embodied in the Northgate Area Comprehensive Plan, and this is a major step towards implementation of that plan.
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TAKING THE LEAD ON HEALTH CARE REFORM
With the Supreme Court having upheld most of the Affordable Care Act and ruled that it is constitutional, implementation plans, which have already been in process, are moving into high gear in Seattle and King County. There will be an immense number of changes in the health care system between now and 2014, when the individual mandate kicks in and we finally join the family of developed nations who have universal access to health care.
Access will be guaranteed, but efficiency and effectiveness will require much work on the local level. David Fleming, the Director of Public Health Seattle & King County, is fond of reminding Board members about the challenge by showing us a simple diagram, which matches the amount of money spent in each country with life expectancy. <
Almost every other country falls onto a line where increased expenditure is correlated with longer life. Only the United States falls way off the curve, with higher expenditures per capita than any other nation, but life expectancy that falls well short of that attained in other industrialized countries. Our system is way more expensive than the results justify.
The Affordable Care Act lays out an ambitious plan to change that by:
- reducing administrative costs
- providing preventive care that will keep people out of expensive emergency rooms
- helping consumers choose health plans based on quality and value
- expanding coverage to people who currently do not have health care insurance, and
- taking a series of other steps to change the system so that we achieve better health in a more cost effective way.
It sounds great, and some of the provisions will work at the federal level (such as the requirement that insurance companies refund to consumers revenues above a certain percentage that were not been spent on actual health care). But most of the work will require considerable effort at the local level to reorganize the system so that it delivers results.
Fortunately, Washington has already taken a leadership position by approving implementing legislation at the State level, including the creation of a health care insurance exchange. At the local level, Public Health has joined with other providers to create the King County Collaborative, which will implement the requirement for Community Health Needs Assessments and defining strategies to improve community health.
Public Health Seattle & King County examined the 11,554 deaths in King County in 2009, and identified approximately 5500 of them as preventable. That's a pretty extraordinary number! Prevention strategies include reducing smoking, encouraging healthier diets and more physical activity, and reducing the impacts of alcohol, infectious diseases, poisoning, injuries, and drug use. All of these activities can be controlled or managed, and the task of community health prevention is to identify effective strategies and create the programs and funding to implement them.
The City of Seattle is participating in the work of health care reform, and we will do our part to create a model that can not only increase the health of our residents, but be the kind of approach that other communities will be able to replicate in order to improve their health. We have a long track record of innovation:
- Creating Group Health Cooperative
- Groundbreaking public health programs
- The Level One Trauma Center at Harborview
- The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance
- Seattle Children's Hospital
- The myriad of organizations and companies working on global health issues and biotech
- And many others.
The benefits will be extraordinary, and the challenges great. How will the expected increase in Medicaid eligibility be managed (42% more people enrolled)? How will we provide services in mental health, long the step child of health programs, but with a new lease on life under the Affordable Care Act? How will the middle class, now eligible for significant subsidies (up to the level of $92,000 annual income for a family of four) use their new access to health care services? How do we make prevention the top priority? How will our community health clinics expand their services while still maintaining their quality? How will we cut the red tape and administration while still maintaining cost control measures?
We have great capabilities in this community, but it will take all of our ingenuity and commitment to transform this ailing system into a new picture of health. The work is starting and the systems are being put in place. Stay tuned for the revolution.
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PLANNING FOR SEATTLE'S EAST LINK STATION
University Link is under construction between downtown and Husky Stadium. The line from there to Northgate is going into final design and engineering. And Seattle is also getting a new light rail station on the East Link between downtown and Redmond.
East Link has already been approved by the Sound Transit Board, although there are continuing discussions about design refinements in Bellevue. It will run from downtown Seattle along I-90 across Lake Washington to Mercer Island, Bellevue, and Redmond. Riders will find it easy to get on at downtown stations: the long range plan is for trains from the north to split when they leave downtown, with alternate trains serving the airport and the eastside.
But riders will also have a chance to get on at a new station to be located in the I-90 right of way near Rainier Avenue. This station will be the first one to be sited in Seattle at a location that is not in an urban village, and will present unique challenges in designing access and in determining what kind of transit oriented development will be possible in the vicinity.
Recognizing that early planning is critical, the Council has approved Resolution 31386, calling for DPD to begin a station area planning process for the provisionally named 'North Rainier Station'. Even the name can be confusing, as what is now the Mount Baker Station is located in the North Rainier Neighborhood Planning area. That area is close enough to the new station that interaction between the two station areas will be important to assess.
The City is committed to finding ways to ensure that development around light rail stations supports ridership and takes full advantage of the transit opportunities that light rail development will provide. It is important to begin this planning work early in order to limit incompatible development, review options for effective implementation of appropriate planning and zoning, and ensure that there is effective community engagement. A station associated with a light rail line in a freeway alignment will be challenging to integrate into the community.
For all of these reasons, now is the time to begin work on this station, even though light rail service will not be operational for almost ten years. The Council has asked that this begin with a plan for community outreach and station area planning around the planned North Rainier Station, to be provided to the Council by August. We want this plan to include specific timelines and planned staff commitments that will allow planning to be conducted in time to influence decisions by Sound Transit about the configuration and design for the station.
We are also asking that the plan include a timeline for adopting a station area overlay district for the North Rainier area and station area zoning that will limit the development of new auto-oriented uses in the vicinity of the proposed station.
Seattle has many unique opportunities to integrate housing, jobs, and light rail transit to develop walkable communities that will thrive around light rail stations. The North Rainier station is particularly challenging, but we have time to creatively consider and develop options that will make this station work for people in the vicinity and for others who would like to use it to ride light rail. Seattle and Sound Transit continue to develop stronger connections and joint planning efforts for great communities.
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LIVING BUILDING ORDINANCE AMENDMENTS
The Council has unanimously adopted changes to the 'Living Building Challenge Pilot Program' that will tighten the qualifications for participation and provide additional incentives for builders to participate in the program. We expect at least one additional building to be able to proceed into construction as a result of this change.
The Living Building ordinance is a pilot program. The idea is to find the right set of incentives that will encourage builders to go to a high level of green. The program only allows 12 buildings to be constructed. It is not a general rezone, and has both a limited number of buildings permitted and an expiration date. At that point, we pause and see what we are willing to incorporate into our regular code in order to reach this new level of greenness.
While the program was enacted in 2009, only one building is in construction, the Bullitt Foundation. Clearly, the incentives provided are not enough. During the drafting of the original legislation, the Bullitt Foundation requested flexibility in case they fell short of meeting the Living Building Challenge, and the City incorporated a fallback process that would allow buildings to keep the incentives if they met 60% of the criteria for certification by the Living Building Challenge, as well as other specific requirements for energy, water and stormwater.
The Living Building Challenge sponsors have decided that they are not satisfied with the 60% level being called a 'living building', so we have worked out modifications to the ordinance that require buildings to fully attain three of the seven living building challenge criteria, one of which must be energy, water or materials. In addition, requirements for energy, water consumption and capture and use of stormwater are specified in order to call the building a participant in the Living Building Pilot Program. The current 60% path will be limited to a maximum of three developments, and participants at that level will be designated as 'Seattle Deep Green' buildings rather than 'living building challenge participants.'
The Living Building Challenge sponsors are now satisfied with this ordinance. Denis Hayes, President of the Bullitt Foundation, states:
This looks very good to me. …Three Deep Green buildings seem fine to me. In fact, after we take this through the next iteration sometime in the future, it would be good to encourage many high-performance, 'deep green' buildings (while encouraging living buildings — with their higher costs and greater benefits — even more.)
Seattle's goal is not just to create a small number of living buildings, but to change the world by demonstrating that buildings that meet rigorous standards for the environment can be commercially viable. That is why two incentives are added to those in the original ordinance. The amendments provide the option of 20 feet of additional height above the base zoning, instead of the 10 feet approved in 2009. And the ordinance provides that floor space used for ground level retail services is exempted from floor space limits. Both of these provisions can only be implemented with the approval of the Design Review Board. Consistent with a settlement agreement with a Wallingford neighbor, the ordinance also limits the area above 45' to no more than 66% coverage to help address bulk and view concerns.
The proposed added incentives only apply to buildings that are in Industrial Commercial (IC) zones located in urban villages or urban centers. Approximately 27 parcels are eligible, mostly in the area around 34th and Stone Way in Fremont/Wallingford, but including some parcels in the University District and Eastlake. The immediate result will be that the proposed Stone34 development, on the northeast corner of 34th and Stone Way, will be able to proceed. Other sites around the corner may be developed under these provisions, but DPD thinks it is unlikely that the sites in the U District and Eastlake will be, since they are either too small or already developed. The ordinance does not have any impact on Capitol Hill. One other potential living building is proposed on Capitol Hill, but it would qualify under the existing ordinance.
The Stone34 project is located in the Fremont Hub Urban Village, and the amendments that would permit it to proceed have the endorsement of the Fremont Community Council and Fremont Chamber of Commerce. While some residents of South Wallingford have opposed this project because of concerns about private views, the adopted Comprehensive Plan policies in the South Wallingford plan provide protection for public views, which the project does not impact. The project design was changed to reduce the bulk of the top two floors in order to reduce the impact on private views. The Wallingford Community Council has opposed the legislation, but did not appeal the SEPA determination of non-significance. Future appeal of the SEPA review on the Stone34 project itself is not precluded by any of the SEPA process for this legislation and is not precluded by adoption of this legislation.
The Fremont Neighborhood Council stated the following in support of the ordinance:
- "The appropriate zoning for the block of industrial lands around 34th and Stone Way has not been comprehensively addressed by the City since before neighborhood planning in the mid 1990s. In 2009, DPD did propose changing the zoning around 34th and Stone Way from IC–‐45 to IC–‐65 in response to Council direction to review all "I" zones in urban villages outside of manufacturing and industrial centers MICs)… The Stone34 proposal is consistent with the overall tenor and movement of land use in the area, and will actually help mitigate the impacts of the City's new Transfer Station by completely screening it from Stone Way. The east end of the Transfer Station will be built into the hill that rises over 40 feet from Stone Way to Woodlawn Avenue.
- "The land rises away from the Stone34 site in all directions except toward Lake Union. The Stone34 site is not in the 200 foot shoreline zone. The project will cause no loss of views of Lake Union from any public right of way; the building at the southeast corner of 34th at Stone Way already does that for lower Stone Way. Loss of views of Lake Union from private property will be minimal, and there will be minimal blockage of views of the Aurora Bridge as well. All of these impacts were thoroughly vetted in both the design review process and the SEPA review of the LBPP amendments."
The process for these amendments was not as straightforward as would be ideal. The Stone34 Project was reviewed in 29 meetings with the public. This includes 14 hours of Design Review Board discussions, which resulted in a recommendation by the Design Review Board pending approval of this amendment. The proponents of the Living Building Challenge, who had some initial concerns, have now concurred with the proposed revisions. It should be emphasized that the organization that administers the Living Building Challenge has no position on the proposed incentives, but wanted to make sure that there was not confusion about the use of their name in the legislation.
If constructed, the Stone34 proposal will provide many benefits for the community. It will be an attractive building, with ground floor retail, and will appropriately screen the North Transfer Station from the west. While there may be some impacts on private views, the building will be much better in every other way than what could be built under the underlying zoning. Brooks Shoes will relocate its headquarters to the building, supporting some 200 jobs initially and potentially significantly more as Brooks Shoes expands in the future.
I appreciate that the process that led to this result was confusing, and I very much regret that. However, the legislation is clearly consistent with the Comprehensive Plan and meets the wishes of the Fremont Neighborhood Plan and the neighborhood stewards for that plan, and is likely to be a good neighbor.
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CAN WESTERN WASHINGTON FEED ITSELF?
The Local Food Action Initiative (LFAI) is designed to increase gardening and farming in the City, encourage farmers markets and other connections to local producers, and emphasize food as an important part of our economy. We know that eating more locally can reduce the cost of transport, provide access to food that is healthier and produced in a less resource intensive way, support regional farmers and farmland and keep money circulating in the local economy. We also know that we can't grow all of our food within the region -- products like bananas and coffee will always have to be imported from farther away.
How much of the food we consume can we actually supply within our region (within our local 'foodshed')? What is a reasonable definition of our foodshed, and will it always supply only a small part of our consumption, or can we actually come closer to balancing local consumption and production, at least for those products that can be grown given our local ecological constraints?
A group of University of Washington graduate students, under the direction of Kara Martin of Urban Foodlink and Professor Brandon Born, has released a "Western Washington Foodshed Study" commissioned by the American Farmland Trust, that seeks to answer these questions. They defined our foodshed as the 19 Washington counties west of the Cascades, an area that includes both urban and rural patterns of settlement, that has a common ecological pattern, and within which local products can be transported relatively easily.
Using data from the USDA's Economic Research Service, the study estimates that the 5.2 million inhabitants of Western Washington consume almost 6 billion pounds of food annually (that breaks down to about 3 pounds per person, per day). A lot of food gets wasted within our food system, though, so much more food – about 8.6 billion pounds – needs to be produced in order for those 6 billion pounds to make it to our forks. Of the top 20 items we consume, 15 can be grown in our ecosystem. And there are numerous other items that we should be eating more of (like leafy green vegetables) that are not in the top 20 but can easily be produced here. Relocalizing our diets could improve our health as well as our local economy.
Production of food in Western Washington totals almost 4 billion pounds, about 43% of the food we need to sustain our current diets. That is actually a pretty substantial production base, but the percentage of specific food items consumed versus produced locally varies widely. Our foodshed produces about 1.5 times as much dairy products as we consume, but only about half of the vegetables we eat and 10% of the fruits and protein products we consume. Of course, drilling down to specific products reveals an even more complex picture, with some food items produced in surplus and exported, and others largely imported. Adjusting for food exports, our 17,000 farms produce about 25% of the food that we consume in Western Washington.
How could we increase this amount and encourage a more healthy diet? The recommendations are clear:
- Protect the farmland that is currently in production, and bring land currently underutilized into production. Some of the region's best historic farmland is still being lost to development, but much of it is still undeveloped, and could be brought back into agriculture. A targeted strategy to protect prime land will be critical to our food future.
- Increase food yields on currently active farmland. By using simple technologies like hoop houses, adopting improved farming practices and converting some land currently used for non-food items to edible crop production, we could produce significantly more food than we do now on the farms we already have.
- Cut down on food waste at all stages of the food production chain. As it stands, about 40% of the food that's produced never makes it to our plates. Innovations in packaging, improved inventory management technologies and consumer education campaigns could go a long way to making our food system more efficient.
- Shift to healthier diets, in line with USDA guidelines. On average, we currently eat almost 40% more than we should; cutting back even moderately would make it easier to meet our own food needs within the region. The USDA also recommends that we up our consumption of vegetables and dairy, which we produce readily in Western Washington, and reduce our consumption of protein, sugar and grains, which we don't produce so much of.
- Continue to encourage and facilitate infrastructure that makes it possible for local farmers to process and store food and connect with local markets. We can also consider the opportunities to produce food that has local markets but is served by imports. For example, we currently produce only 6% of the leafy greens that we consume, yet we can grow them practically year-round. Identifying similar market opportunities and developing a farm to market strategy could make a huge difference in matching local consumption with production.
Forget about the oranges, bananas, and coffee – that is not the issue. Let's focus on what we're able to grow here, and on what we can do to ensure that our considerable agricultural assets translate into a robust local food system.
This study demonstrates that we do produce a significant amount of the food we consume, and that we can do much more with the right kind of local food strategy. We can eat a healthier diet, protect our environment, and keep our dollars in the local economy while supporting our farmers, restaurants, and food-related businesses. If we really want to eat locally, we have to take practical steps to make doing so possible. A coordinated regional food strategy would produce multiple benefits for all of us. We can do many great things within the City, but this regional work is essential to truly realizing the vision of the Local Food Action Initiative.
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HAPPINESS, COMPASSION AND SUSTAINABILITY—A STRATEGIC GATHERING
Join activists and experts in a broad-ranging conversation about an old ideal, the pursuit of happiness! Seattle University, August 24-25, HAPPINESS 2012, with keynote speaker Eric Weiner of NPR, author of THE GEOGRAPHY OF BLISS. More information
Full conference (includes reception with food and beverages): $55 general/$40 students and low-income. Day passes (buy at the door if space available): $35/25. Register now.
In July, 2011, the United Nations urged all member nations to make "the pursuit of happiness" the goal of their governments and find ways to measure their success. We are meeting in Seattle to plan strategy for putting the UN's call into action.
Don't miss this exciting conference exploring the potential of this new movement. At this conference you'll...
- Learn about the vital new worldwide movement for happiness
- Find out about how you can use the Happiness Initiative to improve your community
- Learn about the connection between happiness and sustainability
- Help plan "Pursuit of Happiness Day" (April 13) for 2013
- Hear prominent authors including Eric Weiner, The Geography of Bliss; Vicki Robin, Your Money or Your Life; Cecile Andrews, Less is More; and John de Graaf, Affluenza.
- Meet leaders of happiness movement in the US, including Laura Musikanski, director of the Happiness Initiative, Tom Barefoot of GNH USA, and Dr. Ryan Howell, creator of the Happiness Initiative survey.
Workshops will explore Happiness and Health, Compassion, Environment, Mental Health, Education, Arts and Culture, Finances, Government, Time Balance, Social Connection, Government and Workplace Satisfaction.
See the full conference schedule
Special training for community happiness leaders August 23-24
For more information contact: email@example.com.
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"The lines that divide us don't run between us, they run through us."
-- Claudia Mauro
"Some people see things that are and ask, Why? Some people dream of things that never were and ask, Why not? Some people have to go to work and don't have time for all that."
-- George Carlin
Your Seattle City Councilmember
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